Blueprints Program Rating: Model
A group- or individual-based parent training program that teaches effective family management strategies and parenting skills, including skill encouragement, setting limits/positive discipline, monitoring, problem solving, and positive involvement, in order to reduce antisocial and behavior problems in children.
PMTO is an intervention that helps to address behavior problems, reduce and prevent conduct disorder and promote healthy child development. As a result funding streams that support behavioral health services, child welfare, and juvenile justice are all potential sources of support for PMTO. The child welfare block grant funds (Title IV-B) and the Community Mental Health Services block grant are both potential sources of support for start-up and for ongoing services. Some states have also supported PMTO through Medicaid billing as a family or group therapy.
Improving the Use of Existing Public Funds
Studies document that PMTO reduces conduct disorder in children and improves the quality of parenting and parent-child interactions. State child welfare agencies that support implementation of PMTO may do so as part of a strategy to prevent costly out-of-home placements. State dollars saved on out-of-home placements can be redirected toward expanding and sustaining the intervention.
Allocating State or Local General Funds
If a state opts to cover PMTO through Medicaid funds, state funds are needed to provide the required Medicaid state match. In addition, some state agencies have provided grant funds to cover start-up costs for PMTO.
Maximizing Federal Funds
Entitlements: Medicaid can be an important source of support for PMTO. It is billed as mental health therapy for individual, family, or group. Recipients must be Medicaid eligible. Medicaid managed care organizations can use administrative dollars and/or reinvestment funds to support start-up and fidelity monitoring.
Formula Funds: Formula funds could potentially be used for start-up and program costs associated with PMTO. Because the intervention is generally targeted to children with behavioral health challenges and their parents/ caretakers, behavioral health, juvenile justice or child welfare funding streams are likely most relevant.
- The Community Mental Health Services Block Grant (MHSBG) can fund a variety of mental health promotion and intervention activities and is a potential source of support for Parent Management Training.
- Title IV-B, Parts 1 & 2 provides fairly flexible funding to state child welfare agencies for child welfare services including prevention and family preservation activities.
- Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) Formula Funds support a variety of improvements to delinquency prevention programs and juvenile justice programs in states. Evidence-based programs are an explicit priority for these funds, which are typically administered on a competitive basis from the state administering agency to community-based programs.
Discretionary Grants: Relevant discretionary grants are administered by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) or the Children's Bureau within the Department of Health and Human Services, as well as the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention within the Department of Justice.
Foundation Grants and Public-Private Partnerships
Foundations should be considered as a source of start-up funding. Developing a public-private partnership with foundations and corporate partners could enable a locality to leverage the private investment to help support start-up costs and ongoing quality monitoring efforts.