Whole Number Foundations Level K
Blueprints Program Rating: Promising
A 50-session small group mathematics intervention delivered as a pull-out program offered during the regular school day to help strengthen whole number concepts and operations skills in students at risk for developing long-term mathematics difficulties.
- Academic Performance
- School - Individual Strategies
Continuum of Intervention
- Indicated Prevention (Early Symptoms of Problem)
- Late Childhood (5-11) - K/Elementary
- Male and Female
- All Race/Ethnicity
Brief Description of the Program
Whole Number Foundations Level K is a 50-session small group mathematics intervention delivered as a pull-out program offered during the regular school day. In each session, instructional assistants provide approximately 20 minutes of explicit and systematic instruction focused on strengthening whole number concepts and operations skills. The program duration varies across studies, with some using daily small group meetings over a 10-week period and others implementing 3 sessions per week over a longer, 16 to 20-week period. The evaluated studies included 3 or 4 in-class coaching sessions.
See: Full Description
Clarke, Doabler, Smolkowski, Nelson et al. (2016) found that, compared to a similarly low-achieving control group, students receiving Whole Number Foundations Level K exhibited significantly greater improvement at posttest in:
- Discrete number sense skills
- Oral counting
- Early mathematics achievement
- Whole number understanding
Clarke, Doabler, Smolkowski, Baker et al. (2016) found that, compared to a similarly low-achieving control group, students receiving Whole Number Foundations Level K exhibited significantly greater improvement in:
- Early mathematics achievement
No tests were conducted for differential program impacts by gender or race/ethnicity.
Risk and Protective Factors
- School: Instructional Practice
Training and Technical Assistance
Training is comprised of two 6-hour sessions that prepare instructional assistants to deliver Whole Number Foundations Level K to kindergarten students.
The initial session occurs immediately prior to implementation and focuses on instructional objectives related to Lessons 1-25 (Book 1), the critical content of kindergarten mathematics, small-group management techniques, and the instructional practices that have been empirically validated to increase student math achievement.
The second session is scheduled 2-3 weeks later after a brief period of implementation. The format is similar, but with a focus on the second half of the curriculum, Lessons 26-50 (Book 2); implementation nuances and group management issues may also be addressed.
Both workshops are organized around three principles: a) active participation, b) content focused, and c) coherence. During each workshop, particpants are given opportunities to practice sample lessons and receive feedback on their instructional delivery.
Check dibels.uoregon.edu/market/movingup/kfoundation#training for listing of trainers or contact firstname.lastname@example.org for assistance.
Brief Evaluation Methodology
Clarke, Doabler, Smolkowski, Nelson et al. (2016) assessed Whole Number Foundation Level K’s efficacy on kindergarten mathematics achievement using a randomized block design of the 290 lowest-achieving students across 29 classrooms. Students at-risk in mathematics within classrooms were randomly assigned to either a very small, 2-student group treatment condition (N=58), the normal 5-student group treatment condition (N=145), or a no-treatment control condition (N=87). Measures were collected at the beginning and end of kindergarten and again in the winter of first grade (6 months after program completion), with 93% of students providing at least some posttest data and 68% retained at 6-month follow-up.
Clarke, Doabler, Smolkowski, Baker et al. (2016) also used a randomized control trial of kindergarten students nominated by their teachers to examine Whole Number Foundation Level K’s efficacy. A total of 29 classrooms were randomly assigned to the program or to a control group, with 140 students nominated by teachers to the treatment (N=67) or control (N=73) conditions. Students were assessed at the beginning and end of kindergarten, with an 11% attrition rate.
Clarke, B., Doabler, C. T., Smolkowski, K., Baker, S. K., Fien, H., & Cary, M. S. (2016). Examining the efficacy of a Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 49(2), 152-165.
Clarke, B., Doabler, C., Smolkowski, K., Nelson, E. K., Fien, H., Baker, S. K., & Kosty, D. (2016). Testing the immediate and long-term efficacy of a Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 9(4), 607-634.